PSA (Free)

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Prostate-specific antigen is a glycoprotein and occurs in three forms in the blood:

1) PSA complexed with the serine protease inhibitor or alpha-1-antichymotrypsin,

2) free or uncomplexed PSA, and

3) PSA complexed with alpha-2 macroglobulin.

The first two are detectable and the third is undectectable in conventional immunoassay.

Elevated levels of PSA in serum or plasma indicate a pathological condition of the prostate (e.g. carcinoma, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostatitis). Inflammation or trauma to the prostate, such as following a biopsy or colonoscopy, can result in PSA elevations. PSA levels are also checked to monitor therapy in patients with prostate cancer.

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Awaiting result:

One day

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Collect material:

Blood

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Prepare:

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Purpose of the test

The Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) test measures the level of PSA in the blood. PSA is a protein produced by both normal and malignant cells of the prostate gland. Originally, the PSA test was approved to monitor the progression of prostate cancer in men already diagnosed with the disease. Later, it was approved to aid in the detection of prostate cancer in conjunction with a digital rectal exam (DRE) for men aged 50 and above. The test helps in early detection of prostate cancer, though it can also detect benign conditions like prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Who Should Get Tested

The PSA test was initially recommended for men starting at age 50. However, as understanding evolved, many professional organizations began to advise against routine PSA screening, emphasizing the importance of discussing the risks and benefits with a doctor. Certain high-risk groups, such as Black men, men with germline variants in BRCA2 (and to a lesser extent, BRCA1), and men with a family history of prostate cancer, might begin PSA screening earlier, around age 40 or 45. The decision to undergo PSA screening should be individualized, considering both potential benefits and harms.

Preparing for the Test
Fasting
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Depending on the type of cholesterol test, you may be required to fast for 9 to 12 hours before the test. This means avoiding all food and drinks except water. Fasting is usually required for a lipid panel, which measures LDL and HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.
Medications
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Inform your healthcare provider about any medications you are currently taking, including over-the-counter medications and supplements, as they can affect your test results.
Alcohol
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Avoid alcohol consumption for at least 24 hours before the test, as alcohol can raise triglyceride levels.
Exercise
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Avoid heavy exercise for 24 hours before the test, as this can also affect cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Smoking
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Avoid smoking or using any nicotine products for at least 30 minutes before the test, as they can temporarily increase cholesterol levels.
Follow instructions
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Follow any specific instructions provided by your healthcare provider, such as the time of day to take the test or any dietary restrictions.
Interpreting Test Results

The Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) test measures the amount of PSA in the blood, which is a protein produced by the prostate gland. When evaluating PSA test results, both total PSA and free PSA levels are considered. The free PSA is the portion of PSA that is not bound to other proteins in the blood.

A higher percentage of free PSA can suggest that the increase in total PSA is due to a non-cancerous condition, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostatitis. Conversely, a lower percentage of free PSA can indicate that the rise in total PSA might be due to prostate cancer. However, it's essential to note that while the free PSA test can provide additional information, it does not conclusively determine the presence or absence of prostate cancer. Other factors, such as age, prostate size, and family history, should also be considered. A biopsy is the only definitive way to diagnose prostate cancer. It's crucial to discuss the PSA test results, including free PSA levels, with a healthcare professional to understand the implications fully and decide on any further diagnostic or treatment steps.

AI-Powered Insights and Expert Validation
Advanced AI Interpretation
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Expert Doctor Confirmation
While our AI provides deep analytical insights, the human touch remains indispensable. Every AI-generated interpretation is meticulously reviewed by experienced medical professionals, ensuring a harmonious blend of advanced technology and expert clinical judgment. This dual-layer approach guarantees that the insights provided are not only technologically sophisticated but also clinically relevant. Our medical experts ensure that the AI's interpretations align with current medical standards and practices, adding a layer of validation that only seasoned healthcare professionals can provide. This process reinforces the reliability of the test results, offering peace of mind to both patients and healthcare providers.
Language Model and Trusted Sources
At the core of Diagu's AI system is an advanced language model, engineered to transform complex medical data into clear, comprehensible, and informative descriptions. This model is adept at articulating detailed test analyses in a way that is accessible to both healthcare professionals and patients. The model's development involved the meticulous processing of high-quality sources, including reputable medical websites, renowned medical textbooks, and peer-reviewed research papers. This ensures that the language used in test descriptions is not only accurate and informative but also up-to-date with the latest medical findings and trends. By leveraging this rich tapestry of trusted sources, our AI system provides a deeper understanding of each test, fostering informed decision-making and enhanced patient care.